The junior also helped the 4x100 relay team qualify for the finals with the fastest time in the semi-finals.
Adams ran under 10 seconds for the first time in his career, breaking the school record of 9.98 held by Olympian Coby Miller since 2000.
"I wasn't going out there for the record," Adams said. "I was going out there to make the finals, to win. I ran a good race. God blessed me. I stayed with my technique and ran tall through the line. I just won the race. I didn't expect the nine, but I thank God for it."
Auburn head coach Ralph Spry was excited about the junior's performance. "It is real impressive, especially on this platform, but to put a time together like that at the NCAA Championships is very impressive," Spry said. "I knew he had the ability to do it, it was a matter of him lining up at the right time and doing it."
The men's 4x100 relay was forecasted as Auburn's top event heading into the meet and the Tigers ran a strong race as Jeremy Hardy, Adams, Marcus Rowland and Keenan Brock posted the best time in the event overall at 38.53 seconds, almost half a second better than second-place Illinois.
"The (4x100) was big from a confidence standpoint," Spry said. "It was the first time we've ran with that order so had to make sure we made it through." Auburn's time was its second fastest of the season and also the second fastest in school history.
Adams and Rowland, two of the Tigers' three sprinters in the 100-meter dash semi-finals, advanced to the finals, with Adams doing it in dominant fashion. He led the entire way overall.
Rowland barely squeezed his way into the finals with the sixth fastest run, earning his spot by having the best time of racers who didn't win or come in second of each of the three heats. His time of 10.09 was third in his heat, but was better than Virginia Tech's Darrell Wesh and LSU's Aaron Ernest, who finished first and second in the first heat.
The Tigers' third sprinter, Brock, was unable to pull the trifecta for Auburn, as the SEC champion in the event finished fifth in the second heat at 10.18 seconds and 12th overall.
Auburn's top women's sprinter, Kai Selvon, was the only member of her team to qualify for the finals on Wednesday. She ran the 100-meter dash in 11.21 seconds, just making the cut, finishing with the best time other than automatic qualifiers. Despite having the sixth best time overall, Selvon finished third in the third heat.
Stephen Saenz started the day for the Auburn men, failing to make the cut in the discus throw. The sophomore's best throw measured at 52.75 meters, which was good enough for 14th place. Saenz will still be competing in his best event, shot put, on Saturday.
The women's 4x100 team that Spry called "solid" heading into the meet missed the cut after completing the event with a time of 44.01 seconds. Finishing the third heat in third place behind Ohio State, the Tigers finished two-hundredth of a second behind Texas Tech, which finished in second of the third heat and eighth place overall.
The Tigers, who lacked depth coming into the NCAA Championships, took a blow when CeCe Williams failed to qualify for the finals in the women's 400 meters. After finishing fourth in the first heat with a time of 52.63 seconds, odds were immediately against Williams, and the final spot was taken with the time of 52.40 second.
With three of 21 events completed in the meet that runs through Saturday, Texas leads the men's standings with 17 points. Nebraska and LSU follow with 13 and 11 points, respectively. Stanford leads the women's scores with 18 points. Oklahoma is in second with 14 points and Penn State holds third place with 11.
On Thursday evening Adams, Rowland and Brock will try to qualify for the finals in the 200 meters while Selvon will compete in the women's 200.