Ramon Santiago and Jhonny Peralta hit one-out singles off Victor Marte (0-1), who then grazed Austin Jackson's jersey with a pitch. Berry followed with a base hit up the middle through a drawn-in infield.
Kyle Lohse allowed a run and four hits in seven innings for the Cardinals.
Prince Fielder homered for the Tigers.
The 21-year-old Turner was recalled from Triple-A Toledo to make his season debut. Left-hander Drew Smyly has been out because of a blister on his left middle finger.
Turner kept the Tigers in the game while their offense struggled. He walked five - one intentionally - and struck out three.
Fielder put Detroit in front with a 425-foot homer in the fourth. The slugging first baseman flipped his bat forward after making contact with his huge uppercut swing, and there was no doubt about his 11th homer of the year.
The lead didn't last long. With one out and men on second and third in the fifth, Matt Holliday lifted a foul fly that Detroit right fielder Don Kelly caught while almost falling into the seats. The tying run came home on the play, but after an intentional walk to Carlos Beltran, Turner got out of the inning on a flyout by Allen Craig.
Kelly appeared OK after his catch but eventually left in the eighth with a left knee contusion. He is day to day.
Turner, a first-round draft pick in 2009, posted an 8.53 ERA in three starts last year. He was named Detroit's top prospect by Baseball America earlier this year, and he acquitted himself fine in this game against his hometown team.
Turner grew up about 25 miles outside St. Louis, and current Cardinals manager Mike Matheny actually helped mentor him in high school.
The Tigers are without closer Jose Valverde, who has an injured right wrist.
Daniel Descalso hit a leadoff double off Coke in the seventh, but the Cardinals couldn't get him home.
Detroit intentionally walked Beltran with first base open again in the 10th, and again the move worked. Craig popped out with men on first and second to end the threat.
Tigers catcher Alex Avila had a single in his return from a right hamstring injury.
NOTES: The Tigers optioned C Bryan Holaday to Triple-A Toledo to make room for Avila. ... Detroit now travels to Pittsburgh for a three-game series. Doug Fister (1-3) takes the mound Friday night for the Tigers against A.J. Burnett (7-2). ... St. Louis plays three games at Kansas City. Joe Kelly (0-0) starts for the Cardinals on Friday night against Vin Mazzaro (3-1).
Link to boxscore: Detroit 2, St. Louis 1 (10 innings)