The Cubs took a 3-1 lead into the sixth, but the Phillies sent 14 men to the plate against Wood and two relievers. Wood (10-7) faced seven batters without recording an out and Abreu put Philadelphia ahead 5-3 with his 16th homer, sending the hard-throwing right-hander's 2-2 offering over the right field wall.
Abreu capped the rally with a sacrifice fly off reliever Mike Remlinger and matched the team record for RBI in an inning set by Von Hayes on June 11, 1985.
"It's a good feeling," Abreu said of the record. "I'm glad it happened to me and it's nice to tie the record with the Phillies."
The Phillies had six hits in the sixth and Tomas Perez was the only player who did not score in the inning. Marlon Byrd opened the frame with a bunt single and Placido Polanco collected two of his four hits.
Before the sixth, Philadelphia managed just two hits off Wood, who was pounded for eight runs and seven hits in five-plus innings.
Despite allowing six runs and seven hits in six-plus innings, Vicente Padilla (9-8) won for the sixth time in his last eight decisions.
Wood appeared on his way to becoming the first Cub since Rick Sutcliffe in 1988 to toss three consecutive complete games. He gave up a leadoff homer to Todd Pratt but recovered before misplaying Byrd's bunt in the sixth.
"He kind of self-destructed one inning where he missed a bunt," Phillies manager Larry Bowa said. "It's a routine play and it turns out that's the game. You got to make that play, so we got lucky there."
Polanco moved Byrd to third with a single and Jim Thome worked out a walk. Abreu followed with his first homer in 14 career at-bats vs. Wood, a drive the just cleared the ivy in right field. "I was just thinking, 'Get the ball in the air,'" Abreu said. "I didn't want to end the inning with a double play. I just wanted to keep the rally going."
Ricky Ledee walked and Wood gave up two more singles, including a two-run base hit to Pratt that chased him. Kyle Farnsworth retired Perez, but Padilla and Byrd walked and Polanco delivered a two-run single for a 9-3 lead.
"Going into the game, we hoped to score two to three runs off Kerry Wood," Polanco said. "We never thought about getting that many runs off that guy. We have a good offensive club and everybody is taking good at-bats. And that inning, things just happened."
Padilla served up Sammy Sosa's 520th career homer, a two-run shot in the first, and departed after Hee Seop Choi's three-run blast in the seventh made it 10-6. The trio of former Cub Dan Plesac, Carlos Silva and Rheal Cormier shut down Chicago, allowing just two hits over the final three innings.
Plesac retired Kenny Lofton, Silva gave up a single to Mark Grudzielanek but got Sosa to bounce into a double play and retired the side in the eighth. Cormier finished up, allowing a hit in the ninth as the Phillies (57-43) tying a season high by moving 14 games over .500.
Philadelphia added two runs in the eighth and two more in the ninth as Thome had an RBI single and pinch hitter Tyler Houston came through with a run-scoring double. Polanco capped the scoring with a two-run single.
The Cubs stranded 14 runners and had men on base in all but two innings against Padilla. They missed a chance to take a 4-1 lead when Moises Alou was thrown out by Byrd trying to score on Aramis Ramirez's single to center field.