Taylor, who leads the Dolphins 8.5 sacks, also was selected following the 2000 and 2002 seasons. He becomes the 21st Dolphins player to be selected to the Pro Bowl at least three times.
Thomas had been selected each of the past five years, but saw his shot at making it six in a row derailed by a hamstring injury.
Surtain, meanwhile, had been selected to the last two Pro Bowls, while McMichael and Ayanbadejo are looking for their first appearance.
The one selection is the lowest total for the Dolphins since 1998 when defensive tackle Tim Bowens was the team's only representative.
The Dolphins have been shut out of the Pro Bowl twice, in 1980 and 1997.